sexta-feira, 26 de julho de 2013

Estrutura temporal, RPE e respostas fisiológicas durante lutas de karate: comparação entre vencedores e vencidos

 2013 Jul 22. [Epub ahead of print]

Time-Motion Analysis, Physiological and Rate of Perceived Exertion Responses to Karate Official Combats: Is There a Difference Between Winners and Defeated Karatekas?


Research Unit, Analysis and Evaluation of factors affecting the sport performance, Higher Institute of Sports and Physical Education, Ksar said, Tunisia.


Purpose: The aim of this study was to measure and to compare physiological and time-motion variables during karate fighting's and to assess eventual differences between winners and defeated elite karatekas in an ecologically valid environment. Methods: Fourteen elite male karatekas who regularly participated in national and international events took part in a national-level competition. Results: There were no significant differences between winners and defeated karatekas regarding all the studied variables. Karatekas used more upper-limbs (76.19%) than lower-limbs' techniques (23.80%). The kisami-zuki represented the most frequent technique with 29.1% of all used techniques. The duration of each fighting activity ranged from <1 to 5 s, with 83.8±12.0% of the actions lasting less than 2-s. Karatekas executed 17±7 high-intensity actions per-fight, which corresponded to ~6 high-intensity actions per minute. Action-to-rest ratio was about 1:1.5 and high-intensity action-to-rest ratio was ~1:10. The mean blood lactate responses at 3-min post-combat (Lapost) elicited during karate fighting was 11.18±2.21 mmol.L-1 (difference between Lapre and Lapost = 10.01±1.81 mmol.L-1). Mean heart rate was 177±14 bpm (91±5 % of HRpeak). Karatekas spent 65% of the time exercising at HR>90% of the individual HRpeak. Conclusion: karatekas predominantly use upper-limbs' karate techniques. Karate's nature is intermittent with fighting activities representing ~6% of total combat's duration, with ~84% of actions lasting less than 2-s, and with approximately ~21-s mean time interval in-between. Kumite combats induced high blood lactate concentration and near maximal cardiovascular strain. Other key-success factors should be investigated to properly discriminate winners and defeated athletes.

quinta-feira, 25 de julho de 2013

Diferenças quanto à participação esportiva em 50 sociedades

Cross-Cultural Research

Volume 47, Issue 3, August 2013, Pages 268-309

Sex Differences in Sports Across 50 Societies

a  Department of Psychology, Grand Valley State University, 1 Campus Drive, Allendale, MI 49401, United States
b  University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX, United States 


Sports have been frequently explored in cross-cultural studies, yet scant attention has been paid to female participation. Here we coded the occurrence of sports and related activities for males and females in the societies comprising the Human Relations Area Files (HRAF) probability sample. We then tested several predictions derived from evolutionary theory. As predicted, in all 50 societies with documented sports, there were more male sports than female sports; hunting and combat sports were almost exclusively male activities; and the sex difference in sports was greater in patriarchal than in nonpatriarchal societies. These results show that a robust sex difference in direct physical competition co-occurs with meaningful variation in its expression.

domingo, 21 de julho de 2013

Festa Medieval de Laroque, França

Barraca com as explicações sobre as armas e proteções utilizadas nos confrontos da Idade Média (foto 1) e torneio de espada entre os cavaleiros (foto 2). Mesmo com a proteção e seis árbitros alguns se machucaram um pouco.

quinta-feira, 18 de julho de 2013

Impacto das novas regras nas pontuações e penalidades do Campeonato Europeu de Judô

European Judo Championships: impact of the new rule changes on points and penalties

Franchini, Emerson; Takito, Monica Yuri; Calmet, Michel
International Journal of Performance Analysis in Sport, Volume 13, Number 2, August 2013 , pp. 474-479(6)

In 2013 the International Judo Federation started to test new rules to judo competitions with the objective of make judo more attractive for the general public and to promote which has been denominated “positive judo“, i.e., a more combative style. The aim of the present investigation was to compare two consecutive European Judo Championships (2012 and 2013, i.e., before and after the rule changes, respectively) in terms of scores and penalties. Statistics involved chi-square, analysis for linear trends in proportions and odds-ratio (OR), using 5% as significance level. The rules changes resulted in the increase of penalties and in the decrease of waza-ari (males, χ2=8.76, P=0.003, OR=0.55; females, χ2=3.79, P=0.050, OR=0.61) and yuko (males, χ2=38.93, P<0.001, OR=0.31; females, χ2=6.84, P=0.009, OR=0.56) scores for both males and females, while increasing ippon only for males (χ2=5.03, P=0.025). The total number of shido also increased for both groups (males, χ2=14.21, P<0.001, OR=1.53; females, χ2=6.63, P=0.010, OR=1.43), while the prevalence of hansoku-make increased only for males (χ2=5.78, P=0.016, OR=8.43). Thus, the rules change did not achieve the goal established of increasing scores and decreasing penalties.

Ações técnicas no kickboxing

Technical and tactical analysis of high level kickboxing matches

Ouergui, Ibrahim; Hssin, Nizar; Franchini, Emerson; Gmada, Nabil; Bouhlel, Ezzedine
International Journal of Performance Analysis in Sport, Volume 13, Number 2, August 2013 , pp. 294-309(16)

The purpose of the study was to analyze the technical and tactical aspects of high level Kickboxing matches. A total of 45 matches (135 rounds) from the World Championship 2009 and 2011 of male kickboxers were analyzed using notational analysis system to determine the technical and tactical aspects (i.e., offensive, defensive techniques and combined actions) considering combat rounds, weight divisions and match outcome. Kickboxers were engaged in offensive actions more than defensive ones (P<0.001). The most used techniques were straight punches, roundhouse kick, block/parry and foot defense (P<0.001), while punch combinations were the most used combination type. Winners used more offensive (i.e., hook punches), defensive techniques (i.e., foot defense and clinch) and punch combinations than losers. Significant interation effect of weight category, match outcome and rounds were found on offensive and defensive techniques. The activity in international kickboxing competitions was modulated by weight categories with a significant effect of combat stage. Winners applied more offensives and defensives techniques than defeated athletes. Our findings suggest that to win a match, athletes should be motivated by developing the most used offensives techniques and coaches should structure specific training to maintain a high rate of techniques 'delivery during the combat.

Diferenças de gênero durante o lunge da esgrima

Gender differences in the kinetics and lower extremity kinematics of the fencing lunge

Sinclair, Jonathan; Bottoms, Lindsay
International Journal of Performance Analysis in Sport, Volume 13, Number 2, August 2013 , pp. 440-451(12)

Whilst studies have used participants of both genders in fencing research, there is a paucity of research investigating differences in the kinematics of male and female fencers. The aim of this study was to investigate gender differences in the kinetics and kinematics measured during the epee fencing lunge. Lower extremity kinematic data were obtained from eight male and eight female club level epee fencers using a 3D motion capture system as they completed simulated lunges. Independent t-tests were performed on the data to determine whether differences existed. The results observed no differences in kinetics during the lunge between genders. In addition there were no differences in the kinematics of the back leg between genders. However, females produced greater knee abduction at the end of the lunge as well as greater hip adduction. The results indicate that females could be at a greater risk of knee injuries due to the greater knee abduction and hip adduction produced during the fencing lunge.

sábado, 13 de julho de 2013

IJF Grand Prix Ulaanbaatar 2013

18 medalhas para a Mongólia em sete categorias.
Competição esvaziada?
Tem sentido esse sistema de ranqueamento em que os países que organizam as competições têm muita vantagem na obtenção de pontos?
Note que não é um caso específico dessa competição, dado que isso tem ocorrido sistematicamente.
Com as denúncias do jornal espanhol de ontem, é possível entender porque o sistema continua.

sexta-feira, 12 de julho de 2013

quarta-feira, 10 de julho de 2013

Perfil lipídico de boxeadores

Unfavourable plasma and erythrocyte phospholipid fatty acid profile in elite amateur boxers

Jasna TepsicVesna VucicAleksandra ArsicSanja MazicMarina Djelic & Marija Glibetic

European Journal of Sport Science, Volume 13, Issue 4, 2013

pages 414-421


Research on possible physiological changes as a consequence of a specific lifestyle and long-term strenuous exercise in boxing has been sparse. We determined plasma and erythrocyte phospholipid (PL) fatty acids (FA) profile of 16 elite amateur male boxers (22.4±3.3 years of age), and compared them with a control group composed of 19 sedentary (24.4±3.4) year-old men. The percentages of total saturated fatty acids (SFA) and monosaturated FA in plasma phospholipids were significantly higher (P <0.001) in boxers compared to the control group. On the other hand, all studied polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in plasma PL with the exception of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5, n–3) and docosatetraenoic acid (DTA, 22:4, n–6) were significantly lower in boxers than in sedentary men. Total PUFA, n–6 PUFA and n–3 PUFA were also significantly lower in boxers (P <0.001), whereas the n–6/n–3 ratio was higher in boxers than in control group (P <0.01). Boxers had significantly higher proportion of all SFA in erythrocyte PL compared to the control group (P <0.05). In addition, the percentage of linoleic acid was lower in boxers' erythrocyte PL than in the control group (P <0.05). The results show two potentially unfavourable main features of the FA profile of boxers, that is, a higher n–6/n–3 ratio in plasma PL and a higher percentage of SFA in both plasma and erythrocyte phospholipids compared to controls. As SFA correlates directly with the incidence of cardiovascular disease and high n–6/n–3 ratio has been shown to stimulate carcinogenesis and modulate inflammation and autoimmunity, this profile could be detrimental to the health of boxers. The mechanism underlying these differences requires further investigation; however the results suggest benefits of nutritional intervention.

Tempo de resposta e mudança do alvo em esgrimistas

Response timing in the lunge and target change in elite versus medium-level fencers

Marcos Gutierrez-DavilaFrancisco J. RojasRaquel Antonio & Enrique Navarro

European Journal of Sport Science

Volume 13Issue 4, 2013

pages 364-371


The aim of the present work is to examine the differences between two groups of fencers with different levels of competition, elite and medium level. The timing parameters of the response reaction have been compared together with the kinetic variables which determine the sequence of segmented participation used during the lunge with a change in target during movement. A total of 30 male sword fencers participated, 13 elite and 17 medium level. Two force platforms recorded the horizontal component of the force and the start of the movement. One system filmed the movement in 3D, recording the spatial positions of 11 markers, while another system projected a mobile target over a screen. For synchronisation, an electronic signal enabled all the systems to be started simultaneously. Among the timing parameters of the reaction response, the choice reaction time (CRT) to the target change during the lunge was measured. The results revealed differences between the groups regarding the flight time, horizontal velocity at the end of the acceleration phase, and the length of the lunge, these being higher for the elite group, as well as other variables related to the temporal sequence of movement. No significant differences have been found in the simple reaction time or in CRT. According to the literature, the CRT appears to improve with sports practice, although this factor did not differentiate the elite from medium-level fencers. The coordination of fencing movements, that is, the right technique, constitutes a factor that differentiates elite fencers from medium-level ones.

domingo, 7 de julho de 2013

Quase não acompanho o UFC, pq sei que é "business"...

Os lutadores deles são os melhores do mundo? Alguns.
Deve ter luta de verdade? Sim, com certeza.
Deve ter luta arranjada? Sim, com certeza.
Humildade nas lutas é importante? Sim, para os mortais...
Vejam só os primeiros segundos do vídeo:

E a música das paradas:
"O seu Aranha, subiu pelas paredes, veio a muca forte e o derrubou..." : )

"O que é a modéstia senão uma humildade hipócrita pela qual um homem pede perdão por ter as qualidades e os méritos que os outros não tem!"
Arthur Schopenhauer

quarta-feira, 3 de julho de 2013

Journal of Physical Education and Sport publica artigos sobre L/AM/MEC

Volume 13, Issue 2, June 2013, Pages 153-156

Optimizing aggression in combative sports - An analytical approach

a  P.U., Chandigarh, India
b  Delaware State University, Dover, DE, United States 


The world of combative sports is full of action, excitement and hidden complexities. While each combat style has its unique facets that make it different from other combat practices, but a common characteristic is the systematization of fighting techniques along with a deep usage of mental skill. Competitive combative sports like boxing, wrestling and judo stipulate rigorous psycho-physical and emotive training that must be planned scientifically as per the requirements of the particular sports. Aggression is used extensively in sports and is an inevitable part of combative sports. Since its fluctuation is necessary for better and winning performance, the present study was undertaken to examine its primary functional applicability in such sports. The subjects, male and female international boxers, wrestlers and judokas (N=120), were administered the Aggression Scale (Pal and Naquavi, 1980) to find out their levels of aggression. Univariate analysis of variance was applied to find out inter-sport differences, descriptive statistics and t-test were also applied. The results indicated significant inter sport differences among the three male sports groups. The international male boxers had significantly lower level of aggression as compared to the wrestlers and judokas. Among female players, significant differences have been found and only the wrestlers have been found to have significantly higher level of aggression as compared to the international female boxers.

Volume 13, Issue 2, June 2013, Pages 195-198

Features of theoretical training in combative sports

Lviv State University Physical Culture, Lviv, Ukraine 


The article deals with the theoretical training as a major driver of the effectiveness of the training process of athletes at different stages of long-term training in combative sports. Purpose: The Purpose is determination of problem aspects of theoretical training in combative sports (fencing and taekwondo). Results: Theoretical training is realized from 4 hours to 30 hours of total training load at various stages of long-term development in fencing (from 1,2 % to 1,8 %). In taekwondo theoretical training is realized from 6 hours to 69 hours of total training load at various stages of long-term development (from 1,9 % to 3,9 %). Negative aspects of theoretical training in a group of combat sports are the lack of specificity and differentiation of means and methods of theoretical training at different stages of development, the lack of information structuring in long-term training, neglecting of control in the theoretical training of athletes.

Volume 13, Issue 2, June 2013, Pages 266-269

Acute effect of official kickboxing game on handgrip muscle strength: Winners vs. losers

a  Department of Sport Management, University of Peloponnese, Greece
b  Department of Physical and Cultural Education, Hellenic Army Academy, Greece 


Although an increased number of those practising martial arts, there is little information about the physiological responses induced by such physical activities. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the effect of an official kickboxing game (three 2-min rounds with a 1-min break between rounds) on handgrip muscle strength (HGS) considering the outcome of the game (winners vs. losers). Thirty-one kickboxers (age 24.5 (6.0) years, weight 74.1 (11.6) kg, height 1.77 (0.08) m and body mass index 23.5 (2.2) kg.m-2, mean (standard deviation)) were examined for anthropometric characteristics and performed the HGS test using an isometric digital dynamometer (Takei, Tokyo, Japan) before and after a game. Dominant and non-dominant hand HGS was measured and their sum was calculated. Post-game HGS decreased in total (-3.5 kg (-5.6;-1.4), 0.15 (mean (95% CI), effect size), in the dominant hand (-1.9 kg (-2.9;-0.9), 0.16) and in the non-dominant hand (-1.6 kg (-3.3;- 0.6), 0.14). The largest decreases were noticed in winners (-4.6 kg (-6.5;-2.7), 0.22; -2.4 kg (-3.5;-1.3), 0.23; -2.2 kg (-3.4;-1.0), 0.21, respectively), while the corresponding findings in losers were not statistically significant (- 1.8 kg (-6.4;2.9), 0.07; -1.1 kg (-3.3;1.1), 0.08; -0.7 kg (-3.3;2.0), 0.05, respectively). We also observed different patterns in variability changes; variability increased in losers, while it decreased in winners. In conclusion, a kickboxing game has a negative effect of small size on HGS and this effect is related with the outcome of the game. The findings of this study can be used by coaches and fitness trainers in order to evaluate training load and achieve neuromuscular loads similar to game demands.

Primeiro artigo nacional do ano. Feliz : )

Joel Maurício Corrêa Fonseca, Emerson Franchini e Fabrício Boscolo Del Vecchio. Conhecimento declarativo de docentes sobre a prática de lutas, artes marciais e odalidades esportivas de combate nas aulas de educação física escolar em Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul. Pensar a Prática, Goiânia, v. 16, n. 2, p. 320602, abr./jun. 2013

Nice and interesting article

 2013 Jul 1. [Epub ahead of print]

Perceived Aggressiveness Predicts Fighting Performance in Mixed-Martial-Arts Fighters.


1Department of Philosophy and History of Sciences, Faculty of Science, Charles University in Prague.


Accurate assessment of competitive ability is a critical component of contest behavior in animals, and it could be just as important in human competition, particularly in human ancestral populations. Here, we tested the role that facial perception plays in this assessment by investigating the association between both perceived aggressiveness and perceived fighting ability in fighters' faces and their actual fighting success. Perceived aggressiveness was positively associated with the proportion of fights won, after we controlled for the effect of weight, which also independently predicted perceived aggression. In contrast, perception of fighting ability was confounded by weight, and an association between perceived fighting ability and actual fighting success was restricted to heavyweight fighters. Shape regressions revealed that aggressive-looking faces are generally wider and have a broader chin, more prominent eyebrows, and a larger nose than less aggressive-looking faces. Our results indicate that perception of aggressiveness and fighting ability might cue different aspects of success in male-male physical confrontation.